ICS-KAS Conversation | Ensuring Deterrence along the India-China LAC: The Way Ahead

Lt. Gen D S Hooda (Retd.), Lt. Gen. Praveen Bakshi (Retd.), Air Marshal Anil Khosla (Retd.)

Wednesday Seminar | Zoom Webinar |7 April 2021


The events of 2020 mark a watershed moment for Sino-Indian relations, with India reevaluating its strategic posture vis-à-vis China. Reorienting the country's military posture remains a crucial aspect of deterring future Chinese aggression along the border. Though the past few decades have seen various CBMs and border agreements holding the peace along the Line of Actual Control (LAC), events like the Galwan clash and Op Snow Leopard reflect the inadequacy of past agreements, and the urgent need to bolster India's conventional deterrence against China's military. What are the immediate doctrinal changes and modernisation India's military should take to counter the continental threat from China? What aspects of China's military should worry India's security establishment the most? Will the LAC now be an 'active' border, as the Line of Control is with Pakistan? How can India rebuild CBMs and ensure credible deterrence against China? How should the Army and Air Force work together to ensure a military edge along the LAC? These themes, and other issues were discussed in this webinar.

Xinjiang in the Xi Era

Debasish Chaudhuri, Atul Aneja

Wednesday Seminar | Zoom Webinar |14 April 2021


China has witnessed the emergence of a new political culture and social control mechanisms since Xi Jinping has taken charge of the party-state. The political leadership has not only redefined China's 'core interests' and brought every aspect of statecraft within the rubric of national security, but, in the process, also increased the intrusive role of the state and further restricted social aspirations and any possibility of dissent within communities. The introduction of advanced surveillance technologies and social monitoring techniques as well as the innovations brought about in their wake have occasioned certain quintessential changes in the securitization framework across the country. Given the history of Uyghur separatism and the intermittent outbursts of violence in the XAR, that Region has, of late, become a site of experimentation in a range of novel methods of coercion, officially claimed to be part of the de-extremization process there. In the larger context of China's global outreach and Xinjiang's immense and increasing geo-strategic and geo-economic importance, the stability and growth of the region is thus directly linked with how the regime manages to shape the voices of the ethnic communities within the region as well as, more broadly to contain the deeply rooted majoritarian prejudices against ethnic minorities in general and against Islam in particular. The panelists reflected on and discussed a recently published ICS Monograph titled Countering Security Challenges in Xinjiang – Rise of the Surveillance State? The study explores the situation in Xinjiang against the broader canvas of China's political environment under President Xi Jinping.



18th Russia-India-China Trilateral Academic Conference: Challenges and Opportunities in the Post-Covid International Order

RIC |22-23 April 2021


The Russia-India-China (RIC) Academic Trilateral Conference, a Track-II initiative was undertaken by the RAS Institute of Far Eastern Studies (IFES), Moscow, Institute of Chinese Studies (ICS), Delhi and China Institute of International Studies (CIIS), Beijing in 2001. In the years since, this exercise has contributed in deepening and broadening collaboration and cooperation in variety of fields and the RIC has already became known for its creative innovation and thinking in the field of international relations. The RIC trilateral academic conference is engaged in deliberation on deepening of cooperation in diverse areas like energy, environment, health, agriculture and education which contribute to transformative process in these countries. The conceptual and organizational experience of RIC has been applied in the formation of BRICS, which adheres to the RIC principle of the ‘Three No’s (‘no confrontation, no bloc, and no targeting against third countries’). RIC countries, by rejecting the policy of force, following the instruments of dialogue, “soft power” and cross-civilization dialogue has contributed in the process of elimination of imbalances and relaxation of turbulence in the international politics.




V P Dutt Memorial Lecture – Biden’s China Policy: Old Wine in New Bottles?

Prof. Andrew J. Nathan

V P Dutt Memorial Lecture | Zoom Webinar |28 April 2021


The Biden Administration has continued the Trump Administration's declaratory policy identifying China as a "strategic competitor." It has retained Trump's tariffs, the "Quad," and other policies. Yet Biden's China policy differs in five important ways. First, it is coordinated within the administration. Second, it seeks cooperation with allies. Third, it places emphasis on strengthening the U.S. rather than weakening China. Fourth, it raises the profile of the human rights issue. Finally, besides competition, it seeks cooperation with China on issues of common interest. While Trump called the relationship a strategic competition, Biden is treating it truly as that.



Volume 57 | Issue 1 | February 2021
ICS Occasional Paper

Can Indian Para-diplomacy Harvest FDI Gains from China’s Loss in the post-Covid era?

Santosh Pai | Issue No. 69 | April 2021
There are vast dissimilarities between the design and performance of FDI policies in India and China. While China witnessed consistent growth in FDI inflows since 1978, a post-COVID19 downtrend is expected due to a desire for diversification in global value chains. India’s FDI inflows have been more volatile and it is seeking to capitalize on China’s demotion on the back of some bold initiatives. This makes a dissection of China’s FDI experience instructive from an Indian perspective. This paper presents an overview of prevailing FDI policies in India and China including regional disparities within each country. It then examines individual strategies pursed by local governments in China to determine their suitability for adoption in India after accounting for differences in political and legal systems.
ICS Occasional Paper

Political Mobilization of Women by the CCP

Shruti Jargad |Issue Issue No. 70 | April 2021
This essay provides an overview of the political mobilization of women by the Chinese Communist Party (hereafter, CCP), particularly since the formation of the PRC. It also assesses the continued challenges and roadblocks in women’s political ascendancy arising out of ideological and policy barriers. Finally, the essay briefly looks at the emerging trends in the Xi Era.
ICS Working Paper

Chinese and Indian Economies since the 2008 Financial Crisis

Manmohan Agarwal | March 2021
The considerable similarity in the growth paths of the Chinese and Indian economies since their respective reforms has changed after the 2008 crisis. Growth in both has declined, more consistently in China. Share of exports in GDP has declined in both economies. The dependence of the Chinese economy on exports has decreased; however, its dependence on investment has increased; as investment’s share in GDP has increased, whereas it has decreased in India. There is also a change in the structure of the manufacturing sector in China, though not in India.
ICS Monograph

Countering Internal Security Challenges in Xinjiang

Debasish Chaudhuri| March 2021
Debasish Chaudhuri’s latest monograph is an important study combining serious desk research with empirical perceptions collated over many years by the author in his fieldwork. While the broad subject is one visited by him in a full-fledged work some years ago, the monograph breaks new ground and brings fresh detail and perspectives from a range of Chinese official and non-official material as well as other external research. The Xinjiang problem is generally understood by most scholars outside China as a manifestation of identity politics, marked by the ethno-national resurgence of the Uyghur population. It has stemmed from a prolonged history of interethnic tensions, discrimination and prejudice that have been characteristic of the ethnic policies of the Chinese state combined with other elements such as Han supremacism, the suppression of protest or dissent, as well as the undifferentiated repression of all forms of Islamic practice and local culture within the region.

On a visit to the Soviet Union in 1957 Chairman Mao was shown three “secret films,” inspiring him to launch a top-secret mission on his return

Madhurendra Jha| Issue No:30 | April 2021
In November 1957, Mao Zedong was invited to visit Soviet Union; this was his second and the last visit to the country. On December 16, 1949, Mao Zedong led a delegation on his maiden visit to the Soviet Union. That was the time when the Sino-Soviet relation was in its honeymoon phase. Mao Zedong and Joseph Stalin held talks, both the sides signed the “Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance”, which turned out to be a huge success considering the assistance New China received from the Soviet Union in its pursuit of economy building. During his second visit, Mao Zedong was invited to watch three secret films.

Divorce Application Turned Down 4 Times in 5 Years, Why is Divorce so Difficult in China?

Hemant Adlakha| Issue No:31 | April 2021
On 3 March, 2020, Ms. Ning Shuahua sued her husband in the Hengyang County Court for divorce. This was for the fifth time in the past five years Shuahua took the bold step. She is from China’s post-80s generation and lives in Jingtou town (Hengyang County), Hunan province, China. On all previous four occasions, her divorce petition accusing her husband Chen Dinghua of gambling, was rejected. During this period, Chen Dinghua had been detained three times due to divorce related disputes; Ning Shuahua too was detained once for the same reason; the Hengyang County Peoples’ Court had also issued habeas corpus twice. Chen Dinghua has on several occasions told the local press he would retaliate once the divorce comes through.




Are Chinese People Not Humans?

Hemant Adlakha| Issue No:32 | April 2021
On 6 May, a US company called Rhodium Group released a new “survey report” on carbon emissions. The Report points out, China’s greenhouse gas emissions are higher than that of all the developed countries combined. Despite numerous flaws in its objectivity, authenticity and scientific character, the “investigative report” is being treated as treasure trough by the western media. Media such as CNN and BBC have been since screaming out to the world, saying: “China’s greenhouse gas emissions in 2019 accounted for 27% of the world’s total emissions, the largest by any country. The United States accounts for 11% and is the second largest polluter. The third place is India, which accounts for about 6.6% of global greenhouse gas emissions.”




The ICS Blog is a platform for an open dialogue that aims to inform and enlighten, especially young scholars and analysts on contemporary issues related to China and East Asia.
US-China Alaska Talks: Substandard Diplomacy, “Dense” Translation-Dual Failure?
Hemant Adlakha
2 April
China’s Art of Thwarting Democracy Ananya Raj Kakoti
Ananya Raj Kakoti
5 April


Do Bilateral Summits Mean Anything Anymore in Diplomacy?
Hemant Adlakha
7 April
Xinjiang in the Xi Era: Preliminary Remarks
Amb. Vijay Nambiar
26 April








A message for US and China as India and Russia put two and two together
Gautam Bambawale
South China Morning Post | 30 April 2021
Nicholas Burns for China Envoy: Is Biden Sending Wrong Signals to Beijing?
Hemant Adlakha
NIICE | 26 April 2021





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